Life in and Out of Structure

As a kid growing up my boundaries were outlined by four streets, Newburg, Cherry Hill, Wayne and Palmer. Many streets dead ended at the woods, Wayne road held Norman’s market, were one dollar meant a weeks candy stash. As a teen a walk around the block meant a four hike, each intersection located a mile apart on the country road.  Directions were easy because each road was one mile in all directions.

Never gave this much thought until stumbling upon Holly Holzschlag, Thinking Outside The Grid article.  Holzschlag recounts flying over cities and looking down on the city footprints. She tells us that Tucson was a planned city built on an orderly grid system. Whereas London, the city she compares Tucson with, is built in a spontaneous fashion. [1] It is also a much older city, growing organically through the centuries.

Looking at these maps one can see how the structure of the orderly gird system is easy to navigate, even dependable. However, the trip can become a little monotonous.  Driving around Detroit, built with a central district and circling out into the grid can be exciting as roads wrap and wind around the cities top attractions and business district.   However it is also easy to get lost.

Successful print and web designs are based on a grid system.  The grid is an invisible foundation that helps the designer align the elements on the page/spread.  Common grid systems are the Fibonacci Systems, the rule of thirds and a modular system. The modular is often thought to be the most flexible.

Ellen Lupton, Thinking With Type, says this about the golden mean, “This means that the smaller of two elements (such as the shorter side of a rectangle) relates to the larger element in the same way that the larger element relates to the two parts combined. In other words, side a is to side b as side b is to the sum of both sides.” [2]

She goes onto discuss the modular grid system developed by the Swiss designers in the 1950-60’s, Gerstner, Ruder and Müller-Brockman. [2] The modular grid offers a wide range of options while not forcing the grid.  In her book, Graphic Design, The New Basics, Lupton talks about the 9 square grid and its ability to build irregular and asymmetrical designs.  [3]

This modular grid which was created by Karl Gerstner, takes the grid to extremes. [2]

Order can suck the life out of a party as well as a good design. Yet just like art, before you can abstract the form you need to understand the form.  This is the same for grids.  In the world of design deconstructing the grid became the thing to do in the 1980’s.  Designers like David Carson were responding to the audiences growing sophistication.  Timothy Samara, in Making and Breaking the Grid, talks about the media bombardment as a catalyst for this change, “In an effort to create a meaningful impression that competes with, and distinguishes itself within, this visual environment, designers have pursued various new ways of organizing visual experience.” [4]

In breaking the grid the surface of the plane is challenged. Objects may recede or come forward in a seemingly haphazard manner. Or perhaps the grid is place on a series of angles. April Greiman’s poster for  AIGA,  entitled Objects in Space, is among a series of posters that challenge hierarchy, explore optical space and appear not to have a recognizable structure.

To break or not to break, it is not a question just a matter of when to do which. You decide. . .

Buro Reng Clean, grid design.

Borrowed from Tyson, Typography Love (SCAD student)

[1] Holzschlag, Holly. Thinking Outside The Grid. A List Apart
[2] Lupton, Ellen. Grid. Thinking With Type.
[3] Ellen Lupton, and Jennifer Cole Phillips, Graphic Design, The New Basics, (New York: Princeton Architectural , 2008), 176. Print.
[4] Samara, Timothy, Making and Breaking the Grid, A Graphic Design Layout Workshop, (Beverly: Rockport, 2002), 118-9, 145. Print.

Brody • Greiman • Carson #3

Neville Brody, a London-based designer, began to breaking rules and informing design trends in the 1980s.  Brody felt that art had lost its human-ess. While an art student, this consideration played on his deciding whether to do design or art. He wondered “why can’t you take a painterly approach within the printed medium.” (Meggs, 479-80) It was an expression of emotive art which Brody was aiming – the ability to not hold back in design. This was in response to the International style that had been in vogue. The International Style was based on the grid and clean communicative message where the authorship of the designer was reduced in favor of a universal message.

Because Brody never learned proper typographic techniques, his designs were developed through his own experimentation. (Meggs, 481) Early on with his work for FACE magazine (English) his ability to demonstrate deeper meaning in his layouts. The use of repeated elements, contrast and the use of glyphs as graphic elements all work to create a hierarchy of interest and meaning.
Nike ad

Brody has a fearless approach to design. He states in an interview for The Architectural Review,  “For there are, he says – in typography as in other things – no real rules; what we habitually regard as rules are really just assumptions too often unexamined.” (Farrelly 11 March 2011)

In 2010 Brody attempted to unlock “unlock creative fires and ideas” by holding an Anti Design Festival. This was in response to what he deemed as “25 years of cultural deep freeze.” In addition to his independent works and lectures, he works with international firm, Research Studios. (Bec 29 July 2010)

Brody also approaches typeface design much in the same way – with no rules.  The typeface Blur breaks rules of both legibility and using mathematical equations to create the type face. Since the 1980s designers have been interested int he digital technology and Brody is no exception.  His involvement has him busy with FontFont, a web type foundry. (Monem, 228)

Rick Poynor, in Neville Brody Revisited, talks about Brody’s quick rise to fame int he 1980s and subsequent fall. However Pynor believes that “Brody will emerge clearly as one of the most considerable designers of the period, working anywhere.” (Poynor Feb 04, 2011) He goes onto explain that Brody was inspired by Dada and the Punk period, often fuses with his own massive energy. His desire for expression left him an outsider . He often focused on left-wing political messages that also worked against him in a conservative London.

Brody’s methodology of design is based on particular eras in design history, DaDa and Constructivism. A humanist, he fought for design expression, which went cross grain with the industry. Yet his designs are full of energy and forward thinking. Brody, as Poynor states, “was struggling, though, to escape from being typecast as someone who was hung up on style (he wasn’t) and this perception has dogged him ever since.” (Poynor Feb 04, 2011)

Rules are meant to be broken, yet work is created with meticulous detail in the form or layered meaning. However rebellious or adventurous Brody is or was, he has not lost favor as his work is sought out for its ability to set trends.  The BBC sought out Brody’s assistance in co-designing their new website. (Van de Merwe Feb 16, 2010)

April Greiman, was also born into the new wave of design, bored with san-serif and adherence to the grid.  This new wave  was copied so much that it became a new style.  Meggs states “the typographic new wave strongly rejected the the notion of style and saw their work as an attempt to expand the parameters of of typographic communication.” (Meggs, 466)

Elements that Greiman and her collegues employed included, the use of ruled lines energizing space, stair-stepped  rules, diagonal type, weight changes in the type face and bars balancing type.  (Meggs, 466)

Upon arriving in America, Greiman opened a studio and furthered her creative style. Two changes were her use of color and photography.

In her China Club invitation Greiman plays with depth by over lapping shapes and forms with shadows. This made elements appear animated on the page.  While she was employing the PROUNS system for the elements she did not apply it to her typographic treatments. The elements themselves are floating in space which is intentionally left open.

Meggs continues with Greimans process with this, “The intuitive dispersal of elements could collasp into chaos, but a point-counterpoint organization maintains order by pulling the eye into the page through dominate elements that quickly lead to others as the viewer moes through the pages’s richness of form.” (Meggs, 468)

In a conversation between Laurie Haycock Makela and Ellen Lupton, April  Greiman is mentioned for her turning the corporate world around. Makela explains Greimans approach in this way, “Using a clicky kind of humor, April found a glamorous, funhouse, zen-like center to the practice of design. She threw the Swiss grid on its back, and lovingly fucked it with color and wild imagery. This was a galactic brothel compared to the retentive, methodological aesthetic of corporate design. April was undoing the bow-tie life of graphic design.” (Lupton, 1994)

Ellen Lupton adds this, “April Greiman’s work is a painterly and personalized response to digital technology. As the progenitor of a distinctive signature style that has been widely imitated, Greiman is a legendary star who has helped fuel—inadvertently or not—the cult of personality cherished by many graphic designers. While her work is an exquisite revision of the formal languages of modernism, her approach to technology is often suggestive and metaphorical rather than structural, engaing the mythology of the machine rather than the revolutionary potential of electronic media.” (Lupton, 1994)

David Carson, on the other hand was a sociology teacher who found design by chance and stuck with it. In an interview for, he talks about finding design by chance. He states, “what drives me … what software I use is primarily the ease of transmission…” he continues with his belief that it is about the intuitive eye. (Carson)

Carson seems to have no set rules when it comes to design. His text overlaps and is infused with images that are inspired by his surfer roots. Working with every day items and layering images and type he creates design that is attractive to a younger generation.

David Carson is often found on TED talks and interviews, the media seems to love what he has to say and the way he does so. However some criticism has been laid about Carson’s ability to communicate.  The Graphic shares the cover of Trek, which is designed with layers of type over lapping along with a limited color pallet. Some may feel the cover to chaotic. When asked about  this Carson is quoted as saying ““Don’t mistake legibility for communication.” (“David Carson”)


April Greiman, Accessed July 21, 2012.

Bec, Alex. It’s Nice That, “Neville Brody: The Anti-Design Festival.” Last modified 29 July 2010. Accessed July 20, 2012.
“David Carson.” The Graphic (blog), (accessed July 21, 2012).

Carson, David. “David Carson, A Designer’s Story.” . July 21, 2012.

Farrelly, E.M. The Archetectural Review, “1986 August: An Interview with Neville Brody, Art Director of The Face.” Last modified 11 March 2011. Accessed July 22, 2012.

International Poster Gallery, “International Typographic Style.” Accessed July 22, 2012.

Lupton, Ellen. “Underground Matriarchy.” Ellen Lupton (blog), (accessed July 20, 2012).

Meggs, Philip B. Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. 5th. 1. New Jersey: John Wiley , 2012. Print.

Monem, Nadine. Font.The Sourcebook. london: black dog, 2008. Print.
Research Studios,

Poynor, Rick. The Design Observatory Group, “Neville Brody Revisited.” Last modified Feb 04, 2011. Accessed July 22, 2012.

Van de Merwe, Bronwyn. BBC, “A new global visual language for the BBC’s digital services.” Last modified Feb 16, 2010. Accessed July 20, 2012.

Digital Books and Typography #2

Craig Mod, in his lecture Designing for the Future Book talks of his love of the own-able tactile qualities of the book. He begins is talk of an experience while traveling, of both he and his companion, both opening back packs and pulling out the same book in a romantic and completely random coincidence.  Pulling out Kindles he contends would not have the same romanticism.

He feels that books are bounded and digital books boundless. That the bounded tangible book feels familiar to us.  Largely his talk is about the in between time in technology where books begin to look like books on digital readers.  He also shows us the DynaBook sketched by Alan Kay in 1968 which looks very similar to hand held readers today. The one in the image is a cardboard prototype.

For more on Craig Mod

One of the concerns of the digital book is the lose of, or marginalized, the cover. Another is the typography.

Joe Clark, in his post for A List Apart, declares “The internet did not replace television, which did not replace cinema, which did not replace books. E-books aren’t going to replace books either. E-books are books, merely with a different form.” This I find encouraging because while we must embrace the future – I still want to hold my book, have it fall on my face as I drift into sleep, aline my book shelves. Yet we can only carry so many books with us, and so with technology I will move forward. Eventually.

Joe Clark offers that many of the fine details of typesetting will be handled with HTML5 and CSS.

Another article found on Creative Pro, is very informative regarding type on these devices. The short story is that type on a reader is formed by the surrounding pixels. One bit of advice given was to use a web safe font.

Another informative article by Stephan Coles for the Font Feed, talks about what the iPad is missing – typography (and a camera).  He mentions the limited option of fonts and the inability for ragged right alignment, hyphens and the ability for tables to load correctly.

It seems until the coding and software catches up we have limited options. In the mean time Zen Garden has launched ePub Zen Garden for those trying their hand at digital publication design. The site opens with this statement, “We want to dispel the myth that digital books can’t also be crafted works of visual design.”

Of course designers can use the Adobe Creative Suite InDesign to create ePubs and the Adobe Digital Publishing Suite.

Many print designers are hurrying to keep up, as they should, this is no time to slack. To stay relevant in the field designers have to become adept at designing for a variety of platforms. Design for web or increasingly ePub, is being done through a team of both coders and designers. Technology brings the ability to do these tasks closer to home. Many coders are trained designers and many designers are learning code. Typography for the future will be a mash up of techniques, code and software. Good design with a clear understanding of intended output that will reinforce typography as a means of successfully communicating in the visual field.


White Space in Typography

Much of the feedback received pertained to the use of negative space to surround the word ONE and the ability to flip the black and white for a variety of uses.  Most felt that the negative space made the logo stand out as well as the use of a simple typeface and color scheme which made the typography emotionally appropriate.

This example shows a clever use of negative space in a logo for a guitar store.  Visually the “T” first stood out. Looking closer I realized it was actually two guitar necks and a shape that formed the “T.” Certainly a guitar player, the target audience, would have discerned the guitar shape immediately.

Mark Boulton in A List Apart, discusses the use of micro and macro white space. He references Erik Spiekermann’s redesign of The Economist, allowing for better readability through the use of whitespace. Boulton states this, “adding more whitespace to the individual characters. He then set the type slightly smaller and with more leading. All these changes added micro white space to the design. The overall result was subtle…”

Macro whitespace would be space between major elements and micro whitespace – the space between characters or words.

Boulton suggests that whitespace which leads the reader from element to element is considered active whitespace. Passive whitespace then is the space that allows for compositional harmony.

In Typographic Design: Form and Communication, Amos Chang regarding space to define form states, “. . . it is the existence of intangible elements, the negative, in architectonic forms which makes them come alive, become human, naturally harmonize with each one another, and enable us to experience them with human sensibility.” (Carter, Day, and Meggs 51)  The way words and letter forms are put together creates a syntax of visual syntax.

Design Reviver, shows an interesting example of negative space drawing attention to the focal point is shown below in which you have to look closely.Is it a cat or a dog, or both?

This experimental typographic piece from James Write Lo-Fi Designs, uses the positive and negative to communicate a message of contradiction, while at the same time the visual communication is equally contradiction in that it is black and white, the type is both negative and positive, while the typography takes up every inch of the page. Even the counters are blocked as a solid part of the letter further exaggerating the effect.

Cited References:
Carter, Rob, Ben Day, and Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: Form and Communication. Fifth. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. 51. Print.

Ethically Driven Typography #1

.ONE ONE t-shirt sample

ONE International Organization

Rally sign, welcome page for website and t-shirt for ONE International organization.  A diverse grassroots organization that began when several groups found a common goal, merged together to eradicate poverty and aids around the world.  [1] Bono is perhaps the most well-known spokesperson for ONE, he is also a founder.

ONE first caught my attention through another form of communication – design, with its (red) campaign. Selling t-shirts, bracelets, jewelry as well as special edition Converse shoes.

ONE concerns itself with advocacy and works closely with policy leaders around the world, predominantly Africa. With 3,000,000 members around the world major accomplishments have been realized.

A partial list of accomplishments:
•Additional 450 million for debt relief for Haiti following a devastating earthquake
•provide life saving medicines to roughly 4 million Africans
•create 300,000 jobs and promote exportation out of Africa [3]

Issues ONE is working on:
•AIDS/HIV and diseases
•debt cancellation
•water and sanitation
•development assistance
•trade [4]

Reflection of the typography used in the organization, particularly the logo.  

The logo itself often reversed in a black circle is very strong. ONE is set in a bold, simple typeface. It appears to be condensed with a very narrow counter. The negative space doesn’t intrude deeply into the letterform which helps the logo standout against the black.
When done in red with the parenthesis surrounding the word (one) the typography becomes a message of inclusion – we are all one nestled into the brackets.

The website is very clean often one in black, white and shades of gray. The current page is using yellow to add emphasis to welcome, about and join.  The hierarchy is established with the work being done the largest words on the page yet the logo has the prominent position in the upper left corner.  In this page Desmond Tutu’s quote calls attention from the all capital, gray scale copy with generous white space surrounding.

A few years ago the ONE campaign did a search for t-shirt designs, I did attempt a design and submitted it however the one shown was chosen. The logo is in reverse however the white space surround the word ONE in black stands out among all the other fonts used in the design. The wording is clipped to fit inside the shape of Africa.

The simplicity, bold lettering and generous negative space all work to making the logo stand out. In essence the logo is visible on what ever it is placed or where ever. It is modern in simplicity and attractive to a universal audience with is important as the organization is worldwide.  The modern and uncluttered typography and design surrounding the campaign attracts attention, or if Bono attracts the attention the design retains it.

Was pleasantly surprised to find this reference to the ONE campaign in the Design Elements, “The callout of the word “One,” by setting it in solid black, reinforces the brand image and singularity.” (Samara 147)  One group, one common purpose, one word. Very effective.


Samara, Timothy. Design Elements, A Graphic Style Manual. Beverly, MA: Rockport
Publishers, 2007. 147. Print.